Igiene e Sanità Pubblica 2023; 85(4): 94-100
Pennisi F1, Lo Presti T2, Ricciardi G E1, Dalla Valle Z1, Minerva M1, Privitera G3, Signorelli C1
1 School of Public Health, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (Milan, Italy)
2 School of Public Health, University of Udine (Udine, Italy)
3 Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa (Pisa, Italy)
INTRODUCTION: The Italian National Health Service (SSN) is currently grappling. with a complex situation, characterized by a persistent shortage of medical personnel and the divergent aspirations of young medical graduates. Additionally, recent regulatory developments concerning specialist training further contribute to the intricacies of the landscape, calling for a comprehensive analysis of the challenges and opportunities within the sector. This study aims to provide an updated overview of the current placement of medical graduates, residents and specialists in the specific hygiene and preventive medicine (Public Health) field.
METHODS: Data on admissions, withdrawals and resignations were obtained from the Ministries of Universities and Health and from the archives of the “Associazione Liberi Specializzandi” (ALS). Information regarding the professional prospects for specialists and residents in the field of Public Health was gathered through a tailored survey conducted by the “Consulta dei Medici in Formazione Specialistica” (Council of Medical Residents) of the Italian Society of Hygiene (SItI).
RESULTS: In 2022, a total of 483 specialization contracts were granted, indicating a decrease of 37% compared to the previous year. Notably, 85 positions (17.6%) remained unallocated or resulted in dropouts. Six months after completing their residency, 1.5% of hygiene residents were still actively seeking employment. On a positive note, 75.4% of fourth-year residents secured contracts under the “Decreto Calabria”. Career opportunities within the Italian SSN have witnessed growth, with a significant proportion of placements in territorial services and hospital medical directorates.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The updating of training programs provided by residency schools and the exploration of innovative approaches are of paramount importance to address the urgent need for high-quality training and to cater to the requirements of the national health system.