Elisa T􏰂erracciano*, Fabiana Amadori*, Laura 􏰒Zaratti**, Elisabetta Franco**
􏰇Scuola di Specializzazione in Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, 􏰗or Vergata Università degli Studi di R􏰉oma 􏰇􏰇Dipartimento di B􏰆iomedicina e Prevenzione, 􏰗or Vergata Università degli Studi di 􏰉Roma

Parole chiave: Nuovi vaccini, 􏰗empistiche, COVID, Pandemia.
Riassunto: Lo sviluppo di un vaccino parte dalla conoscenza del microrganismo responsabile della patologia che si vuole fronteggiare. Le tempistiche che seguono dipendono dalla tipologia di vaccino che si intende sviluppare e dalla necessità della sua immissione in commercio. Alcune tappe possono essere accelerate tramite schemi codificati cos􏰊 i tempi di realizzazione, autorizzazione ed immissione in commercio dei nuovi vaccini possono essere abbreviati in casi particolari. Non trascurare i vaccini già in uso rimane fondamentale nella prevenzione di nuove e vecchie epidemie.


Vaccines: from the identification of the microorganism to mar􏰁keting. 􏰂How long does it take􏰁?􏰃

Key words: Ne􏰌 vaccines, 􏰗iming, COVID, Pandemics.
Abstract: 􏰗he development of a vaccine, particularly one that can help against the recent pandemic, is a topic that has recently attracted public opinion. More than ninety vaccines are cur- rently being developed against Sars-Cov2 by universities and companies around the 􏰌orld. 􏰗hey are protein-based vaccines, viral vector vaccines, DNA or 􏰉NA vaccines and inactivated or attenuated viral vaccines. 􏰗he development of a vaccine starts from the identification and characterization of the microorganism that causes the disease. 􏰗he second step is the preclinical phase. 􏰗hen, there is the phase of clinical e􏰅perimentation, 􏰌hich allo􏰌s to study the posology, efficacy and safety of the vaccine, on an increasingly larger sample. In the European Union, vaccines are authorized through t􏰌o procedures (EU and national) based on the quality, safety and efficacy requirements defined by the European and international guidelines. 􏰗iming of realization, authorization and mar􏰍eting of ne􏰌 vaccines can be shortened in cases of particular need, through an accelerated evaluation 􏰍no􏰌n as “Priority Medicines”. In this period, it is crucial not to neglect current vaccinations. In fact, during the pandemic period, many countries postponed vaccination campaigns against many vaccine-preventable diseases, causing a mar􏰍ed decrease in routine immunizations in childhood.

 

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